This report’s analysis of Kenya’s identification ecosystem provides an overview of the main identification systems used to manage development, and an in-depth exploration of three that are vital to
Kenyans’ participation in political and economic life1.
It builds on existing work such as the World Bank’s
Diagnostic Report (2016) and investigations by international and domestic civil society
organisations. However, it goes further by exploring how Kenya’s identification systems are connected through the interests of influential actors and institutions, and by assessing the risks and vulnerabilities faced by their users

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