This report has been commissioned by the European Space Agency (ESA) under its Global Development Assistance (GDA) programme. GDA has a mission to accelerate impact by fully capitalising on the power of satellite Earth Observation (EO) in international development assistance operations. The GDA programme is implemented by ESA in partnership with the World Bank (WB) and Asian Development Bank (ADB)—under the Space for International Development Assistance (Space for IDA) cooperation framework.
It is published as part of the Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) and Impact Assessment activity led by Caribou Space with consortium members London Economics and Imperative Space. This report will
strengthen the evidence that EO activities generate wider benefits for developing countries, in terms
of innovation, entrepreneurship, and job creation, in addition to the direct benefits to users of these
applications that are already well evidenced.

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